3 Types of Logo's
There are 3 types of company logos:
Logotypes / Textual logos
Textual logos are plain and simple text used in a logo format. The font type can appear in various shapes and sizes to convey your message, for example a thick font conveys your business's power or strength, while a fancy script font conveys style and elegance. A good example of a textual logo is that of IBM. Text based logos are the simplest (and favoured by Fortune 500 corporations) but can be enormously difficult to design - the designer is limited in the 'tricks of the trade' that are available. A memorable text logo can help 'brand' your name and is generally easy to reproduce on a wide variety of promotional items.
Iconic / Symbolic Logos
Illustrated logos are simply illustrations used as logos. These logos use an image or an icon that can be easily identified by the customer. It may be related to the product/name (like Shell or Apple) or an abstract shape or have some historical meaning like. A good example would be BMW, who originally manufactured airplanes and used the symbol to represent the spinning propellers. Iconic logo's can after extensive marketing and branding exist all by itself, eg. the Nike swoosh.
A combination logo is a mixture of all of the above elements. The text and graphics may be combined (Arsenal FC) or displayed seperate from the icon (Vodacom) A good example of a combination logo is Adidas.
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